Tag Archives: Physiotherapy

Why Phage Therapy is Better than Antibiotics?

Why Phage Therapy is Better than Antibiotics?

Phage therapy is incredible cure to antibiotic resistance.  Felix d’Herelle was the first scientist to identify the phage therapy that how its emergence can kill specific targeted bacteria and coined the word “bacteriophage” (bacteria-eater) along with Fredrick Twort. They also ran clinical treatment of phage which ended in success. It opens gate for everyone but Tbilisi in Georgia has Eliava institute that solely works in production of versatile phages and deals with different patients from all over the world, it was founded at 1933 but phage therapy was abandoned as antibiotics were discovered after World War 2.  Bacteriophages are the viruses of bacteria, composed of DNA and RNA moves around bacterium to bacterium enclosed with protein capsids.

Antimicrobial resistance is causing deaths of millions every year. Not only developing countries but also developed countries have failed to combat AMR. It has been estimated by researchers that by 2050 ten million people will be dead just because of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Clinical trials of phage therapy tends to be noticed and given importance as a cure.

By studies it have been proved that phage therapy holds the potential to effectively control inflammation caused by disease as parallel to attacking bacteria on its target site. There are two kinds of phages one lytic phage known as virulent and another lysogenic phage known as temperate phages. Lytic phages are those which follows lytic pathway and simply destroy the cell by adhering to the bacterial cell and then penetrate nucleic acid releasing new phage component proteins, nucleic acids. Lysogenic pathway is totally different as the temperate viruses do not kill the infected host bacterial cells. Their chromosome becomes integrated into a specific section of host cell chromosome while inserting genome into host DNA, it becomes dormant and while it’s dormant virus replicates but in lytic cycle virus constantly replicates.

Lytic bacteriophage system also called holin-lysin system.  Two group of proteins are required to kill the host cell holins and endolysin. Holins synergize with endolysin and also control the time of bacterial cell lysis and endolysin does the lysis part, death of host cell. Also some lytic bacteriophages use single proteins to block the synthesis of peptidoglycan called amurins.

Alexander flemming warned us 60 years ago about antibiotic resistance and now it’s actually happening and we need to find alternative ways to treat ourselves without the help of antibiotics. Phage therapy is the best cure of this resistance, Phages are found to be approximately 10 power 7 in per ml in liquid and 10 power 9 in sediment, can be found in harsh conditions as deserts and hot springs. .

Phages are considered as natural processes because they are xenobiotics composed of nucleic acids and amino acids entirely unlike antibiotics. Phage developing procedure is cheaper than antibiotics and effective against multi drug resistant pathogenic bacteria. Phages are very target oriented, so firstly it is important to diagnose infection in bacteria contrary with antibiotics where they had a broad range of target and mostly treat undiagnosed bacterial infection.  Most of the threatening diseases does not have ultimate cure, so patients are on antibiotics for lifetime but phage therapy treatment includes reduced dosages because of its self-replicative nature. Furthermore, custom treatments are also available in phage therapies for some hard to treat bacterial diseases. Sometimes the dosages which work in vitro does not work in vivo so potentially strong phages are required to treat the effect in live host than in cell culture.

Due to the presence of antibiotic resistance mutation, it has been proposed that bacteria can also be resistant against phages but phages are host specific and they evolve as bacteria evolves and sometimes even stronger than bacteria so bacterial resistance is not a problem for phages. Phage therapy are hard to patent due to being natural discovery so that is why many pharmaceutical companies shows very confined interest in phages and funding is difficult to gather for this type of research. Phages are licensed to be used in food processing industry to reduce the use of antibiotics and likewise phage Listeria sp., targets the foodborne pathogen is used in dairy industry.

Why Phage Therapy is better than Antibiotics; facts:

Phage therapy have many unique advantage over antibiotics. The most interesting thing in it is that as bacteria evolve resistance, relevant phages also evolve resistance alongside. When bacterium appears, phage already attacks it. Phages penetrate deeper as the infection is unlike like antibiotics, which decrease in concentration.

  • Bacteriophages are very site specific, only attack on targeted site, no secondary infections occur
  • Replicate at the site of infection unlike antibiotics
  • There are no side effects present of phage therapy
  • Selecting new phage is work of two weeks while synthesizing new antibiotic takes a lot of time.
  • Phage therapy costs $2,500 in Georgia

Antibiotics are lethal and we have to reach for better options. In 2016, a woman died because of bacterial infection. People are dying because of bacterial diseases and antibiotics are useless as bacteria have become stronger. It takes approximately 10 years for scientist to make new antibiotic for specific disease and get the FDA approval. Bacteriophage is the solution to all of this chaos; which infect virus and then kills it. Phages are able to kill antibiotic resistant bacteria. Phage makes a lot of holes inside bacteria and destroy, kill it completely

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Leave Application due to Medical Assessment

Sample Leave Application due to Medical Assessment of  Special Child Employees teachers workers can be used this application format for leave if they want to assess their child from physiologist. Necessary changes can be done.

Leave Application due to Medical Assessment

To,
The Manager,
Despot Chemical Industrial Firm,
California, United States of America.

Subject: Letter of leave due to medical assessment of son

Respected Sir,

Good Day! I hope you will be fine and I pray you may be blessed with the same for the rest of your valued life. As you know I am recently blessed with a baby boy and we both spouse were happy to have him as first joy of our life. We were complete, but few days ago he was checked by his school doctor and he had found with weak liver functioning.His growth is effecting due to low blood level. Tomorrow will be his regular assessment with doctor and I want leave of one day for this purpose. Thanking in anticipation for this favourable action.

Yours Sicerely,

Mr. Kent Jordan,
18 th November, 2017.

Application of One Hour Daily Leave due to Speech Therapy of Child

To,
The Manager,
Tenant Lark Industrial Firm,
California, United States of America.

Subject: Application of one hour leave due to speech therapy of child

Respected Sir,

Honorable Sir, it is to state with much grievance that my daughter is facing difficulty in speaking and she is six years old now. The psychologists had declared that she is found with border line Mental retardation and it is recoverable so doctor suggested us to have regular session of hers with the psychologists. She is our only child and we cannot take risk of her health and life. My sales targets are achieved and two pending leaves of this month are on my status. Kindly give me one leave out of those two leaves and I will be thankful to you for this act of generosity.

Yours truly,

Mr. Earnest Jordan,
18 th November, 2017.

Job Application for Special Education Teacher

Sample Format of application for Special Education teacher. Competitive and Sympathetic minds are welcomed in this profession and this format can be used by persons who wanted to apply junior teacher or senior teacher for the job in the special education institution.

Sample Job Application for Special Education Teacher

To,
The Principal,
Starlight High school for Girls,
Utter Perdaish, India.

Subject: Job application for special education teacher (MR)

Respected Madam,

It is to state with much concern and gratitude that I had read about the job vacancy in the newspaper regarding a need of teacher in MR department. I had done special diplomas and courses in the respective area. I am capable of tackling the all related issues of such students.

I had attached copies of my degrees, certificates and experience letters with my Curriculum Vitae for your kind review and concern. I hope you will consider my words with keenness and give me chance to teach in the institution.

Thank you.
Yours Truly,
Ms. Tamera Shoat,
7 th November,2016

Sample Job Application for Special Education Teacher (OCD)

To,
The Principal,
Touching woods International School,
Utter Perdaish, India.

Subject: Job application for special education teacher(OCD)

Respected Madam,

It is to state with due respect and honour that I had recently earned my degree of clinical psychology and I am prone to teach the patients of OCDs as my mother had suffered from the same tension. I treated her successfully and feeling quite confident to serve others as well.

Kindly give me a chance to prove myself by giving job in the institution. I had attached all the requisite documents with this application for your kind review.

Thank you.

Yours Truly,
Mr. Sundeep Chotaani,
7 th November,2016

Leave Application due to Physiotherapy

Sample Leave Application due to Physiotherapy. Such applications can be used by students and employees when they have faced certain health issues.Easy formats are here for your convenience.

Leave Application due to Physiotherapy

To
The Principal,
Margaret Public School,
California, United States of America.

Subject: Leave Application due to Physiotherapy

Respected Sir,

It is to state with much due reverence and respect that I wanted a leave for only week on the score of worst strain in my left leg. The injury was caused when I was playing football championship held yesterday in our school. In the excitement the pain was not felt, but the moment I went back home and took rest, the fatal pain fainted me to numbness. The only cure suggested is physiotherapy. Kindly grant me the required leaves so that I can heal in a better way. Thanking in anticipation.

Yours Truly,
Mr. Joseph Andrew
30 th August 2016

Sample Leave Application due to Physiotherapy

To,
The Manager,
Michelle Sugar Mill,
California, United States of America.

Subject: Leave Application of due to Physiotherapy

Respected Sir,

With due respect and perfect decorum, I would like to beg leave of one month from my duties. I am currently at the post of Sales Supervisor from the past many years. My father got minor attack of paralysis on his left side. Although the attack he got is minor, but it is on the left side which make the matter serious. The doctor suggested physiotherapy for him.

I am the eldest and the only son of him and I cannot leave him in this state so kindly retire me from my duties for the desired time period. The necessary documents are attached herewith this application for your kind consideration. I hope you will see to this matter with all concern and humane approach. Thankyou very much in advance.

Yours Sincerely,
Mr. Anvil Strew
30 th August, 2016

Sample Leave Application due to Physiotherapy
Sample Leave Application due to Physiotherapy