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Timeline of Coronavirus

Timeline of Coronavirus

1- December 7, 2019: The first case came to surface in city of Wuhan, China. It was thought of as pneumonia.
2- December 31, 2019: China reported a number of pneumonia cases to World Health Organization (WHO).
3– January 7, 2020: First case of Europe emerged in France which was also first case outside China.
4-January 11, 2020: Death of a 61-year-old man in China, first death due to COVID-19.
5– January 12, 2020: China presented corona virus genetic sequence
6– January 13, 2020: COVID-19 case reported in Thailand.
7– January 24, 2020: Corona virus found to be originated from wildlife
8– January 30, 2020: WHO states that COVID-19 is a public health emergency of international concern.
9– February 2, 2020: First death in Philippines which marks the first death outside China.
10– February 11, 2020: The virus was given the name COVID-19 by WHO.
11-February 14, 2020: First case reported in Africa that emerged in Egypt.
12– February 28,2020: Risk assessment level elevated from high to very high by WHO.
13– March 8, 2020: COVID-19 cases reported in 100 countries
14-March 11, 2020: COVID-19 was declared as a pandemic by WHO
15– March 16, 2020: Number of infections of COVID-19 and deaths decrease in China as compared to other countries.
April 2, 2020: COVID-19 cases exceed 1 million.
April 8, 2020: Lockdown lifted in China including Wuhan city
April 15, 2020: COVID-19 cases outstrip 2 million.
May 9, 2020: COVID-19 cases exceed 4 million worldwide.
May 10, 2020: COVID-19 case reappears in Wuhan, China
May 12, 2020: Wuhan states that all citizens will be tested for COVID-19.
May 14, 2020: First case reported in refugee camps of Rohingya, Bangladesh.
May 18, 2020: Moderna claimed production of immune response in vaccine during human trials.
May 23, 2020: Gaza Strip reports first death due to COVID-19
June 7, 2020: Death toll due to corona exceeds 400,000


Everything You Should know about Corona Virus

Everything You Should know about Corona Virus


First case of corona virus was reported in 2019 that emerged in Wuhan, China. COVID- 19 causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and has taken the form of a pandemic. This RNA virus has created a panicking situation.

Most common observation is that the patients have dry cough, they feel intense pain in their bodies, have problem while breathing and fever. Other less common symptoms include, loss of ability to smell and taste, gastrointestinal issues and headache.

If one or more symptoms for corona virus are present or if the person has been exposed to a COVID patient, it is better to get tested. Labs take nose or throat swab samples and carry out PCR based tests to check for presence of virus.

As it is a contagious disease, people should:
1-Wear masks and wash hands after touching a surface.
2-Avoid contact and keep a distance of at least 5 feet.
3-Avoid meeting people who have COVID-19. In case of contact, people must stay in quarantine for at least 14 days.

At the moment, there is no vaccine in market for corona virus but clinical tests are being carried out by different companies. Plasma therapy is one effective way of introducing COVID-19 immunity in patients. In addition, antiviral drugs are also being used.

There are some perceptions about corona virus that do not have scientific basis such as,

1-COVID-19 is the deadliest disease
2-Hot weather kills COVID-19
3-Corona virus only infects old people
4-Antibiotics can be used as treatment

In reality, none of this is true. COVID-19 can cause deaths but the greater percentage of people recover. Neither hot nor cold weather can prevent corona virus infection. COVID-19 can infect people of all ages and antibiotics are not used against viruses.

Vaccine for COVID-19

Vaccine for COVID-19


Many drugs and treatment strategies have been suggested for COVID-19 but they are not 100 percent effective. COVID-19 vaccine is the ultimate solution. A number of vaccines are being produced worldwide while some are in the phase of clinical trials.
Different companies and institutes are working to find the vaccine that has maximum efficacy and minimum side effects. Companies are taking different approaches for making the vaccine.

Nature of vaccines for COVID-19

Vaccines are divided in various types depending on the virus and immune system. At present, the vaccines that are undergoing clinical trial or are in preclinical stage include various types. University of Oxford is recently running trials on a vaccine that is based on non-replicating viral vector. Similarly, a university in Belgium and Pasteur Institute in France are in preclinical phase of testing their replicating viral vector vaccine. An American company” Moderna” is working on an RNA virus vaccine. These viruses have been successful in the past and are efficiently produced. DNA virus vaccines on the other hand, provide long term immunity and are comparatively inexpensive.
Apart from these, COVID-19 vaccines are also being produced by using inactivated form of the corona virus. Several doses of these vaccines are required to gain the immune response. Contrary to this, live attenuated virus vaccines are also being designed. These vaccines will use weakened viruses to produce fast immune response in human body with few doses.

COVID-19 vaccine: Sole treatment for Corona Virus:

Many treatment strategies are being utilized to get rid of the virus but they all have their own limitations. BCG vaccine has been tested against COVID-19 with no satisfactory results. Similarly, hydroxychloroquine has also proven to be ineffective against this virus. Thus, the fate of corona virus depends on the manufacture of COVID-19 vaccine.

Obligations of Doctors during Pandemic

Obligations of Doctors during Pandemic

1– Doctors should give utmost priority to their jobs in a situation of pandemic. The fact that doctors have higher medical knowledge, makes it an obligation for them to perform their duties.
2– In case no medication for the disease exists at the time, doctors should consult other professionals and give alternate medication only by consent of patient.
3– During a pandemic when people are asked to quarantine themselves, doctors should provide advice and care even on phone, social media platforms or emails. This increases the availability of doctors for a large number of patients. The risk to doctor’s health is also eradicated in this way.
4– Doctors are obligated to use their knowledge and advocate for issues related to pandemic such as governments’ responsibilities, legal matters and provision of necessary equipment.
5– It is obligatory for doctors to perform their duties without being partial. As the hospitals are flooded with patients during a pandemic, deciding which patients be given first priority is an important decision. A transparent selection system must be devised.
6- Journalism or media associated doctors have a great responsibility as the people look up to them. They should provide accurate information and remove any confusion among the public regarding the pandemic. Prevention is the key to safety and doctors should brief people about the lifestyle they should adopt.
7– Before the treatments are devised, deaths by the disease are inevitable. Patients who are struggling in the last stages of life must be taken care of on the basis of life dignity and human rights.
8– If the doctors are carrying out clinical trials, they must follow the medical ethics. In case of healthy participants, doctors must make sure that the person is well informed and consents for the trial. The trials should be designed in such a way that they impose minimum risks to the participants.

CoronaVirus Vaccine Trials

Coronavirus Vaccine Trials

Development of COVID-19 vaccine would be a turning point in this global pandemic situation. Scientists all around the world are working day and night to make vaccine and to find a treatment for this deadly disease. Countries such as China, USA, Japan, UK and Germany are working on multiple projects and some are already in the clinical trial
Ongoing Trials:

Different companies and educational institutes have created the vaccine and are carrying out clinical trials. Some USA based organizations include:

1– Novavax in pre-clinical phase

2- Inovio pharmaceuticals in phase 1

3- Moderna, which is currently in phase 2 trial

Chinese companies CanSino Biologics and Sinovac are both in phase 1 of the clinical trials. The Chinese company Sinopharm is in phase 2 of trials in china and has also offered to carry out trials in Pakistan. Similarly, University of Oxford, UK is very confident about the results of vaccine trials and is in phase 2/3.

Multiple Phases of Clinical Trials:

The first phase concentrates on testing on a small number of people to observe side effects. In the second phase the vaccine is given to hundreds of people. Third phase involves effectivity testing of vaccine on thousands of people. At this point if the vaccine shows no side effects and the regulatory agencies approve, it is ready to be introduced in market. But sometimes a phase 4 is also necessary to check long-term effects.

Expected Launch of COVID-19 Vaccine in Market:

As various companies worldwide are carrying out human trials on COVID-19 vaccine it is expected that a vaccine would be launched in 12-18 months. If clinical trials, that are being carried out at the moment, prove that a vaccine is effective and does not impose serious side effects only then it would be made available by mid or late 2021.

Lethal symptoms of Corona Virus

Lethal symptoms of Corona Virus

Covid-19 is creating alarming circumstances around the globe. The global death toll has crossed 3 lac and the number of cases is increasing day by day. A number of symptoms have been observed ranging from mild to lethal. Major concern are the people who have serious symptoms and are not able to recover on their own. Lethal symptoms that have been observed are:
1- Difficulty in breathing Hypoxia is common in COVID-19 patients. The oxygen level in blood decreases suddenly and the patients have to struggle while breathing. COVID-19 can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome and it can be fatal.
2- Fever Most of the patients get fever and start to feel cold. The chills lead to excessive shivering and body temperature can increase to 100 F or above.
3- Body aches Joints in the body start to hurt. Muscle pain is due to the tissue breakdown in body, fatigue and tiredness, weakness and lack of energy. This can be so painful that sometimes the patients are unable to move or even talk.
4- Gastrointestinal problems Diarrhea has been observed in a great number of patients. Other symptoms include, abdominal pain, vomiting, nausea and loss of appetite. In very rare cases, bleeding can occur in gastrointestinal organs.
5- Pneumonia When the virus enters the lungs, fluid starts to fill in and lungs get inflamed. This results in chest pain, coughing and breathing problems. If the condition of patient goes out of control, this can be fatal.
In case of these serious symptoms, the patients must see the doctor immediately or might even have to be hospitalized. Corona virus is mostly lethal for patients who have low immunity or are old in age (above 60). Having preexisting medical problems (such as pulmonary or heart diseases, diabetes etc.) can also create complications.

Best Ten Tips to Spend Time during Quarantine

Best Ten Tips to Spend Time during Quarantine

Quarantine surely confines your outgoing and lifestyles are affected when less opportunities pop up. Its really hard to spend time doing something productive in quarantine. Following are best ten tips to spend
time during quarantine:

  1. Take Masterclass for the course you always wanted to do but never got a time for it. It is the best time to spend working on things you wanted to do for a long time.
  2. Be a pro-chef! Learn how to do cooking. Make some delicious food with the help of YouTube videos and your mum around in quarantine. Serve everyone yummiest food ever.
  3. Keep yourself active! Don’t rely on munchies. Even if gyms are closed, workout at your home and be physically fit. You can take virtual classes by your instructor while quarantined. This will also make you habitual of working out from home. It is one of the best tip to spend time during quarantine.
  4. Work on your passion. The passion you always had but never got a chance to be excel on it. This is the right time to work on it and be the master of all skills.
  5. Start writing journal. This journal will help you make record of all of the historical moments you are witnessing during quarantine.
  6. Start eating healthy. One of the best tips you can adopt in this quarantine is start eating greener. Fortify your immune system with all the greens. Keep yourself healthy and support your immune system with veggies.
  7. Try to spend your time in quarantine by learning about world, politics and climate change. Explore about international and national tourism. Enhance your knowledge and be a little wiser in this quarantine.
  8. Awake the artist in you. Create some quarantine masterpiece. Utilize the time by spending it on creating an art that you are going to preserve and cherish for whole of your life. Painting is a great way to spend time and be productive at same time. Take the inspiration from surrounding or channel your ideas into your art.
  9. Quarantine can be little too hard on your mind sometime. So, it is okay to do something fun for yourself too. Watch your favorite season and have some fun time. This is one of the best tips during quarantine for your mind to freshen up and be functional.
  10. Read a happy book. Reading is important, it opens your mind and make you feel a lot of stuff at same time.

Modern Science Impact on Students

Modern Science Impact on Students 

Science affects us all in one way or another. Modern science is taking over the world gradually. Quest for modern science knowledge is indeed a spell. Science always amazes students with its discoveries and products. Students of this century are exploring every palace of science and improvising things at their best. It is important for students to learn about Modern Science. Genomics, Cancer Research, Biotechnology impacts on science and how it is the traditional science. The scientific community generates journal and publish research paper and doing impeccable amount of work is the prove that science has reached its new heights.

People are interested to know how chemistry between chemicals occur, which chemical will react with other and what would it form? would it be helpful for the mankind or destructive. there is no doubt that science has created destructive and catastrophe things but it has also given us immunity from so many diseases. Vaccines and antibiotics are the reason that scientists researched more when traditional ways failed. Phage therapy is now abundantly used instead of antibiotics. People with several diseases are being treated by it and leading a healthy life. Cancer is now treated by chemotherapy, radiation therapy and hormone therapy.
Bioinformatics has brought new change in the research world. In silico work is helping tons of researchers and students in their in vitro lab work. They are conducting in silico researches prior to in vitro work. Government need to trust students with advance science and invest in young minds. Modern science has no boundaries, its craze is rising day by day. People are changing genders and turning into a new identity is all hail to modern science.

By exploring human body to no end, people are now able to come out as different orientation and undergo various kind of surgeries to change themselves physically. Modern Science has given the chance to childless parents to bear a child. Surrogacy, In vitro fertilization has made it easy for people to have their own child even if they are unable to bear it by themselves. This is modern science which is knocking off the genes and silencing the mutated and deleterious gene so disease can be cured. Mutations can be predicted easily now. This is breathtakingly astounding that science is nothing like it was centuries ago. It is important to remember that conventional science helped the modern science to set its standards.

What is Corona virus and What are the Precautions

What is Corona Virus and What are the Precautions

1– It is a novel corona Virus disease that is said to come from animals such as bats.
2– It is called as 2019-nCoV. It was reported to World Health Organization on 31 st December 2019.
3– It reproduces inside living cells and hijack their machinery. They turn the cell into virus by binding to it. The virus progeny affects other cells and cycles starts anew.
4– Scientists have linked the diseases to a family of viruses known as corona viruses, which include the deadly SARS and Middle East respiratory syndrome.
5– Corona virus is thermonuclear pandemic level bad.
6– This outbreak started in Wuhan, one of the central Chinese cities. It is believed that source of illness is seafood market in Wuhan, which sells wild animals in market.
7– China has shut down Wuhan to reduce the spread of virus. Cancelled all the transportation leaving the city.
8– Cases are now found in many of the countries because people from Wuhan travel to other countries and spread the virus. It is now found in japan, Thailand, Germany, Finland, France, Italy, Sweden, India and Pakistan.
9– Symptoms of this disease are mundane as dry cough, fever, runny nose and breathing problems which further leads to viral pneumonia as a last stage.
10– In severe cases, people can have organ failure.
11– It is not identified early as people don’t tend to go to hospital in early stage as the intensity increases and it develops more severe, it causes death of people.
12– People with weak immune system are vulnerable to disease because they are unable to fight off the virus.
13– Recovery mostly depend on the strength of the person immune system.
14-There are two types of transmission of corona virus: animal to people transmission and
people to people transmission.
15– Antibiotics don’t work on this disease as it is a virus not a bacterium.
16– Specific treatments for this disease are not yet identified as it is a brand-new virus.
17– Clinical trials of drugs are going on to treat Corona virus.
18– People with respiratory problems are more in chance to have the corona virus.
19– 170 deaths from 7,700 reported cases means that mortality rate is about 2%.
20– Viruses that spread easily have mild impact on population.
21– Stay home, don’t go in crowded places, avoid contact with people even family members especially the one who have recently traveled.
22– Wear Face mask to protect yourself from contracting the virus.
23– Hand hygiene is very important. Wash your hands thrice with soap and alcohol rub.
24– Seek health care if mild symptoms appear.
25– Make sure not to come close to someone who has any kind of illness. 3 feet to 6 feet distance is to be maintained from the ill people.

26– It is advised to females to take iron tablets twice a week and men once a weak to improve their immune system, healthy immune system increases the chances to fight off the viral diseases.
27- Vick’s stick is very helpful. Put 1 tsp Vick’s in small bottle of warm water and shake to dissolve it. Try to inhale it every hour.
28– Take garlic in your diet. There are certain kind of oils that are helpful.

How to Improve Your Confidence in Work Place

How to Improve Your Confidence in Work Place

Useful Tips:

Confidence is believing in yourself and in your capabilities, it means to give yourself a chance to prove your worth to the world or even to yourself sometimes. Sometimes People don’t have confidence to face themselves and question their credibility and this where lacking kicks in. Being confident is the key to successful life. Especially in a wok place. Here are some useful tips to improve your confidence at
work place.

1) Make sure to be your best motivator. First rule is always to focus on your work, once you have done you work. Go and represent it with full confidence in front of your boss. Take deep breaths. Give yourself a prep talk. It is very important to boost your confidence before any presentation. Self-confidence is very important. Prepare yourself to be best at every position.

2) Eliminate all the pessimistic things which makes you question your worth. Make sure that you surround yourself with the people who are very optimistic in nature at work and always have something good and encouraging to say to you. Being with negative people never lets you achieve bigger things in life. Never be one of negative people and always try to stay away from them.

3) Be open and ask questions and participate at work place. It is essential to participate n tiny tasks of office. Go to your boss and ask questions related to the new program. Tell them your new innovative ideas about new program, tell them you have better resource links. Tell whatever is going in your mind. Take them as your friend.

4) Always focus on your goals. Don’t hesitate to ask for promotion if you think time has come. Don’t make your promotions delayed just because of lack of confidence. If everyone is getting promoted or if you think that your promotion is promised and hasn’t been done then ask your boss. Question them. Don’t sit at one place and think that things will go your way automatically. Make the flow for yourself easy by being active.

5) Make your profile stronger. Try to make yourself up to date. Try to communicate to your clients and create connections with them. It will help you out in work as well as in future. Learn new skills from your colleagues and make your profile stronger.

6) B more productive. Try to write your schedule and make your routines that way. Do your work and as go through the schedule to see if you could’ve done that work in any better way. Evaluate your performance at work. If your boss is not happy with your confidence, think to make your work improved and just the way your boss want, by applying different and unique techniques. Surprise your boss with your intellect.